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Centennial Salutes To The Birth, Growth And Development Of Richard Wright As A Writer

I have for long been touched by the literary excellence of Black Boy of all Richard Wright's work which I have had a reading, teaching experience spanning almost thirty years, a period in which I have kept wondering as to what makes it such a wonderful representation of a writer and at the same time remain a lively, gripping, intriguing, and illuminating read almost throughout the pages. That this year is the Centennial of his birth which is being marked deservedly well with many literary events I thought that it could be the most needed catalyst to propel me into putting my thoughts, reflections and recollections of this ever-present Black Boy in print. This content was created by

A celebration of the life and works of Richard Wright is significant and justified for me in Sierra Leone as his works both Black Boy and Native Son are taught and studied at all levels of our educational system from secondary school level upwards and have left an indelible impression on all who have read them. I have taught Black Boy for almost ten years from the teacher training college Milton Margai, to librarians in training at Fourah Bay College and I and my students have agreed it is an irreplaceable gem - his style as much as his stoicism and his unswerving pursuit of self-improvement in spite of all the forces pitted against him, being a model for all . One of America's greatest African-American writers, Richard Wright was among the first Black writers to achieve literary fame and fortune. Article has been generated by Essay Freelance Writers.

But this was due mostly to the superb quality of his work: his vivid descriptions of scenes, the sense of gradation in portrayal, psychological penetration of his characters at various stages of their growing up, especially so Black Boy, his capturing the traumas, pain and anxieties of growing up black in the southern states of America in the early twentieth century, and his commitment to championing the cause of blacks wherever they live, Africa or the Diaspora. Richard Nathaniel Wright, the grandson of a slave was born and spent the first years of his life on a plantation near Natchez, Mississippi in September 4 1908.. His father, Nathaniel, was an illiterate sharecropper and his mother, Ella Wilson, was a well-educated school teacher. The family's extreme poverty forced them to move to Memphis, Tennessee, in 1913 when Richard was six years old. Although he spent only a few years of his life in Mississippi, those years would play a key role in two of his most recognized works: Native Son, a novel, and his autobiography, Black Boy.

Soon after moving, his father abandoned the family, leaving his mother to support them alone. His family moved to Jackson, Mississippi to live with relatives. So when in how to write an autobiography pdf of 1925 at the age of 15, Wright wrote his first story "The Voodoo of Hell's Half-Acre", and it was published in Southern Register, a local black newspaper, he had little support and encouragement from his family. For his grandmother had already conscripted every one on her side against Richard's independent and creative spirit. He had to develop a high level of motivation and daring , to go ahead. He graduated as valedictorian of his 9th grade class in May 1925, and enacted another daring defiance against authority by reading his own speech instead of the principal's..He left school a few weeks after entering High School, worked at several menial jobs in Jackson and Memphis while continuing writing and discovering the works of the masters.

Effective Papers: Essay On Photography

The first article that I read was written by Robert Sullivan. The photograph that moved me the most from this collection was on page 27. This photograph was taken in Bosnia in 1993-1994. In this photo, a dead soldier is being ritually washed at a make-shift morgue outside of a mosque before he is buried. Not only is the deceased soldier moving in and of himself, but also there are intense diagonals created by the minaret of the mosque, which had fallen over due to Serbian artillery fire, in the background. The damaged structure looms over the two gentlemen washing the body of the soldier in an ominous fashion. What is a position essay? of light and shadow in this photograph also contribute to its powerful appearance. We Can Write Custom Essays on Photography for You! Chapter 29 out of the book The Informed Eye, entitled Transcendental Pictures with photographs by Dorothea Lange, was the second article that I read. The photograph that affected me the most from this article was Lange's Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936. The visual qualities, such as the strong use of light and shadow and the frame created by the children, enhance the affects of the photograph.

The most important elements of the photograph are, however, the tattered migrant mother and her children. The position of the two older children's bodies related to the mother show their pain and sorrow as well as their dependency on their mother. The younger child in the mother's arms is dirty and appears unhealthy. Not only do the mother's clothes appear worn out, but also the mother's face has the same tired, worn out appearance. This photograph portrays the hardships that a migrant mother and her children face. Having read these articles and seen these images, I believe that photographs are art. Just because the process is chemical does not mean that one can take away the artistic qualities of photographs. It is true that photography can be used for aesthetic purposes, but photography plays many roles. After aesthetic use, photography can be used to document a situation, event, etc. It can be used for a hobby; for example, taking pictures of friends and putting them on a poster board. So, while photographs are art, they also play many other roles. As far as my relation to photography, I took photography classes at my high school. As a result of these classes I have dealt with photography a good deal. I still have a continuous interest in photography to this day. All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on the Photography topics are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education. We work with experienced PhD and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! We guarantee each customer great quality and no plagiarism!

To further ensure Abraham's line, Isaac marries within his kin group who live outside the area of Canaan. So Rebekah, his future wife that has been arranged for him by his mother, comes to live with Isaac and his family in Canaan. In most likeliness Rebekah is also a parallel cousin of Isaac. They later have twin sons, who show great examples how the rules can be changed. Esau, the eldest son came out of the womb only a few minutes earlier then Jacob, the second born. Interestingly, Jacob became the favorite son of Rebekah, and through tricks on Jacob and Rebekah's part, the youngest son again, becomes the inheritor. First Esau trades his birthright to Jacob for food, thus loosing the rights that enable the firstborn and then with the help of his mother, Jacob tricks his elderly father to give his blessing to him. This blessing only due to the oldest son, and there is only one blessing a father could give. Jacob

Patriotism English Essays

This essay can be written with the help of some examples from your own country or from your study of history. 5) Conclusion patriotism in its true perspective. Patriotism means love for and devotion to one's mother-land. This is a very natural aspect of 'human life. We naturally have some association with the place where we live and with the people with whom we live. Such associations culminate into the sublime qualities of patriotism. Check it here for our country requires us to make some, sacrifice. In the first instance it demands of us to be good citizens to be law-abiding people and ultimately to contribute something to the common good of our people. It exhorts us to rise above self and to do something for our countrymen. At its highest, patriotism requires us even to sacrifice our lives. Even we try to become patriots and Endeavour to rise up to the noble expectations of our mother-land we cultivate certain good qualities of head and heart. The spirit of selflessness and self-sacrifice helps us shake off mean and low feelings. Content was generated by!

Our social and moral values are developed and we create nobility not only in ourselves and serve as a source of inspiration to authors. This sincerity of purpose enables the country men to work hard to make their country a social welfare state and thus to maintain her honor and glory in the comity of nations. Men with patriotic feelings make the real wealth of a people. Not gold but only men can make, A nation great and strong, Men who for truth and honor’s sake, Stand fast and suffer long. These are the people, the poet goes on to say, Who work while others sleep. They never lose heart. They maintain the morale of their nation by their constant efforts, while others fly and ultimately. They build their nations' pillars deep, And lift them to the sky. The patriotism enables a person even to work in an atmosphere which discourages the ordinary man, under adverse circumstance when others don't co-operate or even betray him. The soldiers stand by their country in the hour of peril and lay down their lives simply to vindicate her honor. We can find glorious examples of certain great national heroes who struggled hard and fought valiantly for their mother-land. Patriotism creates a very broad outlook-that is, a person arises above his own self. He prefers the interests of the country to his own interests. This enables him to look at life in a very broad perspective-that is, the love for his countrymen. But there is one thing regarding patriotism which should be kept in mind. Patriotism means love for one's country but it does not at all imply the sense of hatred for other countries. On the other hand the spirit of self-sacrifice should be extended to the entire human society. It means that patriotism should teach us love for and service to humanity.

Steiner (1972) proposed that "at any one time in any society, there is a set of generally accepted relationships, obligations and duties between the major institutions and the people. Philosophers and political theorists have called this set of common understandings `the social contract"' (p. 18). This, he felt, forms the basis of social responsibility. It is a set of generally accepted relationships, obligations, and duties that relate to the corporate impact on the welfare of the society. It includes considering others besides stockholders (e.g., employees) when deciding how a business should be run, and going beyond profit as a goal for a business. Social responsibility has been found to affect organizational effectiveness (Kraft, 1991a, 1991b; Zahra and LaTour, 1987). Socially responsible organizations and their managers accord greater importance to the interests of a society, to the extent that they may supersede those of the business. They are thus not guided purely by the fina

English Essay Writing

A few observations could be made on English essays and English essay writing. The first thing about the essay is that it is a literary work that is indefinable in nature. It is a definitely a type of literature, but it is not exactly possible to be analyzed, and that is the reason for which literary men and critics differ widely in their assessment of the nature of an essay. Secondly, an essay may be written on any subject irrespective of it being high or low, slight or great. The art of English essay-writing is dependent on the adequate treatment of the concerning subject. The third relevant issue is the importance of the manner in writing an essay. In fact, it is the very manner, as a customary practice, a few observations may be made on essay and not the subject itself that counts in the essay, which has to be impressive and attractive enough in expression. Article has been generated by Essay Writers.

The mode or the pattern of writing is the fourth aspect in the essay. There are no golden rules in terms of the narrative, reflective, subjective and so on, and the essayist may have his own choice of method. The golden key to good English essay writing is freedom of writing. The writer is given the liberty to choose his own technique in order to make his writing impressive and attractive at the same time. The final observation in English essay writing is that there the style of the essay writer that cannot grow under the fetters of instructions. The style with which the essayist writes is the product of his independent self and may differ from other essay writers. It is needless to mention that English essay writing is a distinct form of literary art, and needs a very creative spirit as well as well as a creative way of writing. A good English essay writing depends, too, like other successful literary form, on the right interpretation of the matter and the manner, of the content and the form. Informality and freedom are the qualities of an essay as distinguished from a dissertation. The well-marked tendency among modern English essayists towards greater logical regularity and consistency of structure is only one among many other signs of the evolution of the literary type of English essay writing in response to changing conditions. With Lamb, Hazlitt and De Quincy, the English essay writing became the popular form in which the mind roams independently, soars and sinks. The mantle has fallen on the modern essayists.

Ethos and Logos: As someone who's been a hairdresser for over 30 years, I can tell you that the classic French bob is always in style. Seventy percent of the cuts requested by clients are the classic French bob or a very similar style. Logos: The lack of consistent forensic evidence leads us to believe the defendant did not commit the crime. Logos and Ethos: The lack of consistent forensic evidence presented by the coroner, the forensic expert, and the police chief leads us to believe the defendant did not commit the crime. The difference between the use of logos and the use of both ethos and logos is that the use of ethos includes a bit of bragging about the writer's or source's credibility or authority. Whether narrative essay examples 're a writer looking to use the rhetorical situation to effectively communicate with an audience, or you are looking to better identify the use of rhetoric by others, gaining an understanding of kairos, telos, ethos, logos, and pathos will be of benefit. Want to read more about Writing and Argumentation? What's a Research Narrative? Smoking and Tobacco Use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright Amy Lynn Hess. Please contact the author for permission to republish.

Do you need a guide to write a narrative essay and wowo your instructor? Dive into the blog to know everything about narrative essay writi

O Level English Language (1123)

I thought about providing some last minute advice for the O’level English 1123 Examination, and hence, I have written this post. I hope you will find it a useful reminder/instant revision guide for your final examination paper. Read the question carefully to understand the situation, task and content points. Always follow the format in the question. If no format is given, then you should follow the format prescribed by your teacher. Develop the 03 contents in equal detail, whenever possible. Write 4 - 5 paragraphs in your letter/report/speech/article/account. Write a proper beginning and ending sentence. The word limit is 200 - 300 words. You should write around 250 words at least. Use formal language in all directed writing tasks, except Informal letter. Always plan your response before you start writing. 1. Planning your response: 3/4 minutes. 2. Writing : 22 - 24 minutes. 3. Editing: 3 - 4 minutes. Read all the given topics at least twice, before choosing the topic you want to respond to. Choose the topic according to your strengths and preparation, and whether you have enough ideas to write between 350 - 500 words.

Avoid writing an argumentative essay, unless you have thoroughly practiced this type of writing. Plan before you start wiring and always recheck your work before you hand it in. 1. Planning narrative essay prompts : 7/8 minutes. 2. Writing: 45 minutes. 3. Editing: 5 - 6 minutes. Descriptive and Argumentative essays should have a proper introduction (1 paragraph), a detailed body (3 - 6 paragraphs) and a logical conclusion (1 paragraph). Stories should have an engaging opening, with an intriguing middle to sustain readers’ interest and a logical ending to bring a proper resolution to the plot. Use similes, metaphors and effective descriptive words to create verbal pictures in a descriptive essay. Keep your stories believable and realistic. Use flashback, dialogues and description of setting to make your narrative composition engaging for the reader. Avoid writing stories which end up as a ‘bad dream.’ Avoid copying the plots from popular movies you have watched. Also refrain from showing violence, racism or glorifying crime in your stories. This content was generated with the help of!

Editing your essay is immensely important before handing it in. You should know what your common errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling are. Don’t try to use ambitious vocabulary unless you are sure about its meaning and use. Using a simple word correctly is going to gain you more marks than using an unfamiliar word incorrectly, while trying to impress the examiner. The points should be brief, precise and concise. You don’t need to write them in your own words. Review the marking scheme to find out how the point should be written. Avoid repeating a point in different words. Examples of a point do not count as separate points. Each point should be written on separated line in a numbered or bulleted list. Example points given by the examiner in the boxes are not included in your 15 content points. Write 2/3 extra points, whenever possible. You will get marks for the extra points in case some of your points are incorrect. Write a paragraph summary of 160 words, including the 10 words given in the question.

Use your own words as far as possible and use conjunctions to make your paragraph cohesive and fluent to read. You should know the difference between facts and opinions. Google it and you will find plenty of resources. Practice solving the past paper questions on finding fact/opinion. Read the passage once only to get the general idea of the main topic/theme. Read every question twice to identify its type and then locate the answer in the relevant paragraph. Your answers should be two the p

Top 50 Narrative Essay Topics For College Students

A narrative essay means the essay takes you from one position to another. The same may be said about the persuasive essay or even an expository essay, but unlike those, a narrative essay will only use a one-track method to get you there. The most common method is to have the writer write in the first person and to have events occur in a chronological or systematic order. Those are not the only ways a narrative essay may be written, but they are the easiest and if you have not written many narrative essays in the past then those are the tools you should use. Academic essays do not usually reward creativity. In fact, some of the highest scoring essays are often the ones that look as if they were written by robots. The field is a little more open with a narrative essay. Maybe it is because the writer is allowed to take the reader on a journey that is more personal. The field is a little more open when it comes to the creative use of language.

You are getting the reader from one point to another, but to get them there you may have to evoke emotions or some sort of empathy, and many humans respond to the creative use and choice of language. Pick up on the cues from your professor as to if your essay should be personal or not. If there is a focus on experience, then your professor is probably looking for something personal. Do not pick a topic that is too personal because it will only lead to embarrassment in the long run. If you are asked for a personal essay, then a narrative essay is probably the best way to go. It brings people into your personal world a lot quicker, especially if you write it in the first person. Your topic should not be a tired one, but it also doesn’t have to be original. If it is a personal essay, then your professor isn’t expecting to read about how you climbed the African K2, or how you saved a puppy from a burning house. This is a sneaky but clever way of grubbing an extra mark or two. Your professor has a motivation for giving you the essay.

Does your professor want to see how much you have learned so far? Is your professor checking your writing skills? Is this a practice piece or a graded term paper piece? Does your professor want you to cover a coming subject/module so he or she doesn’t have to go over it so much in class? Is this assignment very similar to the one last term? You should probably add a conclusion because your teacher may have a marking guide that insists upon one, though you should know that a narrative essay does not always need a conclusion in the same way that a fictional book does not always have to say ‘The End’ at the end. It may be a good idea to finish with a strong concluding statement, but even then, your professor may be looking for something substantial because of a restrictive marking guide. It is therefore better to add at least a paragraph for your conclusion, in which you can cover the guiding principle of your essay, or the moral/lesson held within your essay. You can go over the lesson/moral/principle again to highlight it from earlier, or you can reach your lesson/moral/principle within the conclusion. 5. A lie can have serious consequences. 7. Sometimes a simple misunderstanding can lead to a major conflict. Describe a time when this happened to you. 11. Parents are our first and most important teachers. 20. There is much to be learned from our failure. 28. Learning from failure. 37. There’s a saying that a dog is man’s best friend. Content was generated with Essay Freelance Writers!

5. As a name, not individual words or sentences are rendered to a plan, but detailed phrases. Separate words are too “narrow” and specific, and the main idea or topic is rather difficult to convey. But complex sentences do not fit, because they represent an already completed thought. It must be a phrase that is more suitable for the plan. a

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How To Complete A Literature Review For Your Dissertation

It's always so much fun writing a dissertation, isn't it? Completing an essay is difficult enough, but a dissertation is a much bigger beast, because the structure required of the dissertation and the level of content needed to fill the dissertation is much grander. An important element of a dissertation is therefore the literature review. This is also the section of the dissertation that most individuals struggle with. A literature review is the section of the dissertation where you present all of the important bits of information that you have gathered that relate to your chosen subject, or to the argument that you are assessing throughout the dissertation. Each element of literature should be presented to the reader in a logical way. The best way to do this is to establish a general argument for the section of the dissertation, and allow the evidence to help 'tell' the reader the argument. This was created with the help of!

For example, if your chosen dissertation subject is to 'explore the pros and cons of animal testing' then you would present the information that you have gathered as 'arguments from others that are in support of animal testing,' and then 'arguments from others that are anti animal testing.' Similarly, if the dissertation question was, 'why did Churchill lose power after the war,' you'd group together the key argument themes that others have presented, and then state them all one-by-one within the literature review. Getting together the information that you need to present in the literature is your next step. Without this, you'll have no content for your literature review! So, how do you gather information to fill up your literature review? There are lots of different ways to gather information - it all depends upon your preferences. Below are some ideas to help you with your information gathering. Head to the library and go through text books or reference books that are related to your subject. Whenever you find a section or a quotation that is relevant to your dissertation subject matter, make a note of it in your notepad. Alternatively you could go to the library and riffle through the text books until you find a section or a quotation that is relevant to your dissertation subject matter. Once located, photocopy the page(s) and highlight the required section on your photocopy. Keep all photocopied sheets together in a folder, ordered in a logical way. Surf the internet for important piece of information that can help inform your dissertation question, argument or subject matter. As you find relevant information, write it down or print off the page. Importantly, ensure that you know who the information belongs to (who initially stated it) so that you can allocate the argument or comment correctly in your literature review.

I tend to use the bold and underline feature quite a lot, so I miss it a bit. Q10's spelling checker does not mention the misspelled words while you are writing or until you hit the button for spelling checker. Though it is not quite a mess, because at the end when you hit the button, you get everything correct. This deficiency offers more distraction free environment while typing but many people still may miss that feature. Q10 creates only .txt files. Hence for creating a .doc or .docx file, you will have to do a little more work. Overall I found Q10 as a splendid software, and now I do the bulk of my work using this software. I spent a lot of time finding this, so I shared a detailed review with you all. Hope you enjoy it and may have found it a bit useful. Have a good day and keep writing. And the best thing is, that the software it TOTALLY FREE TO DOWNLOAD!

You can at least give it a try, you do not have anything to lose! I have gotten used to Word although I do have other

How To Write A Great Essay

Writing an essay can be an exasperating, maddening process. Especially when it's about something that you don't enjoy or don't know anything about. So where do you begin? While I can't guarantee that you'll make an amazing grade, the following advice can help you ensure that you do all you possibly can to make your essay incredible. The first step, however, is to know what your topic is. This can be both a blessing and a curse. Check the guidelines on your assignment. If it's a specific topic or tells you to pick a topic about a specific subject or time period, you're in luck. If it's up to you to decide on a topic, try to pick one that is (a) related to your course and (b) related to something you enjoy. For example, you've got an assignment for your American history course. You're a biology major. You could write about a famous American biologist, or a discovery made by American biologists that changed the course of the field. For help with essay, please contact

If you're a sports major, consider the history of your favorite sport, a biography of your favorite athlete, someone who changed the course of the field, or the history of sports medicine. If you're still having trouble, talk to your professor or classmates to get ideas about topics that you might enjoy. Generally, academic essays (and most other non-fiction writing) argues a point, known as a thesis. It's very important to understand how to argue your thesis, as it will structure your entire essay and contribute greatly to your grade. Simply contradicting others won't do - you need to assert a thesis and defend that thesis with evidence. An argument is a composition intended to persuade that uses facts for or against a point of view. A contradiction is a statement which asserts the truth or falsity of something. Having a question that you must answer. Researching the question, and this research yields facts. For help with essay, please contact!

click to get info may also yield other opinions on the question. Draw conclusions from the facts and opinions. This conclusion provides the answer to your question. Develop a thesis statement, which explains the question and your answer to it. This statement will be in the introduction of your essay. State the facts which support your thesis in your supporting paragraphs. Use examples and quotes to illustrate each supporting fact. Summarize the facts in your conclusion. The next step in writing any essay is to gather your sources. Depending on the kind of research you will do, you may use primary and secondary sources or just one of the two. Primary sources are documents that are contemporary with the event you are describing. For example, a primary source for medieval times would have been written during the time period. For Ancient Greece, you could consider the writings of Socrates or Plate a primary source.

For the modern era, primary sources include a myriad of things: books, newspaper and journal articles, videos, pictures, etc. What types of primary sources you will find depends upon the time period about which you are writing. Secondary sources are all other types of sources. Generally, these are written by people looking back upon a time period - such as historical nonfiction on pirates written in the year 2009. Secondary sources can also include a myriad of things, including pictures painted or recreated after the time period. When gathering sources, it is also important to analyze from where those sources are coming. In general, books and scholarly journals are the best place to start and should be your main focus. Do not rely on the internet, except to obtain pictures or graphs. There are some credible websites - design

Start: Informative Speaking Assignment Sheet - The Public Speaking Resource Project

This page shares a pattern Informative Speech task sheet. You'll verify with your personal instructor to find out the right format for your class. You could clarify one thing, methods to do something, how one thing occurs, or present us how you can do it. As you may think about, the listing of matters is infinite! This speech must be on any topic that you're comfortable with but shouldn't tell us what we already know! informative speech topics for college Demonstrate appropriate subject selection, audience evaluation, organization, and content material growth in a speaker-audience setting. 1.2a Create and perform informative messages. 1.3 Practice effective verbal and nonverbal delivery techniques that are properly suited to the occasion and audience. 1.Four Utilize appropriate analysis methods to find and ethically combine supporting supplies from diverse sources and factors of view. 1.5 Demonstrate the power to listen, analyze, and provide suggestions on public discourse. Read Unit 2’s material and watch the videos posted within the content material space to help you perceive the means of public speaking. Topic: The subject may be of your individual choosing - it could also be about a person, place or factor.

This speech might be one of the next: definitional, descriptive, explanatory, and demonstration. It is not a topic of controversy or persuasion. The topic ought to be adapted to the audience and never tell us one thing we already know. The topic should be engaging at a school degree. 6 to eight minutes Practice your speech while someone keeps monitor of time so that you're inside the 6-8 minute time zone. 4. Organization and Outline: a rough draft of the speech is due as famous within the syllabus - convey a copy to class as noted and add it to the correct drop box. The ultimate DRAFT is a TYPED full-sentence outline full with parenthetical citations and typed works cited, goals space, and an audience evaluation report as famous beneath and outlined in the worksheet. Please deliver a printed copy of your define, bibliography, and viewers survey report back to class on the day of your speech presentation.

Remember you do not write an essay. Audience Analysis: Additionally, you will analyze your viewers previous to writing your speech so that you just write a more practical, better-adapted speech. The important thing to well-tailored speeches is “knowing your audience.” Also, you should keep away from predictable subjects the place we all have a robust opinion already. Try to place your individual spin on the subjects. You'll ask three questions related to your matter as outlined below and cross out the survey on slips of paper to members of our class. You'll use the class’s suggestions in your viewers analysis report due with Speech 2. Note — it's possible you'll place a “No Comment” if anyone asks too personal of a query. 1) Ask one “fixed response” query - the place we can select the precise response to achieve more data on your speech three subjects. “Do you assume an individual should be fined for not wearing his or her seatbelt within the entrance seat? What number of rushing tickets have you ever had? This content has been written by Essay Freelance Writers!

Paul’s Speech 1On a scale of 1-5, how typically do you wear your seatbelt? Never 1 2 3 four 5 Always. Why or why not ought to folks be required by law to wear their seat belts? Note: Try not to “change your mind” on your matter, as it will mean a brand new survey. Write an audience analysis report and attach this to your outline & works cited materials, placing it within the Assignment drop box by the date indicated in t

APA Referencing Guide

The following provides a comprehensive beginner’s guide to APA Style referencing. APA (6th ed.) requires page or paragraph numbers in in-text references for direct quotations and encourages the same for paraphrases. However, most science disciplines do not require page or paragraph numbers except for direct quotations. For specific details, check with the unit co-ordinator in your discipline? Below are examples of referencing based on variation in authors. Write the author’s surname only in-text. Addington (1994) states that . Addington, H. (1994). Cultural cringe: A study of change. Cite both surnames every time the reference occurs in text. Use ‘and’ between authors, but use an & when in brackets and in References. Holper and Torok (2008) claim . Holper, P.N., & Torok, S. (1992). Climate change: What you can do about it at work, at home, at school. Sydney, Australia: Pan Macmillan Australia. Name all authors in your first in-text reference, but use ‘et al.’ after this.

Use ‘and’ between the last two authors in your sentence preceded by a comma. However, if all of the in-text reference is in brackets, use an ‘&’ instead of ‘and’. Name all authors in the references. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma. First mention: MacKay, Clarke, Fleming, Collins, and Sue (2006) demonstrate that . Subsequent mentions: MacKay et al. 2006) also found that . MacKay, I., Clarke, C., Fleming, M., Collins, M., & Sue, J. (2006). Food the focus for our future. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ in-text. For 6-7 authors, record all the authors’ names in the References. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma before the last name. For 8 or more authors, record the first six authors followed by . Peters et al. (1995) base their study on an economic model. Peters, C., Suzuki, T., Corrigan, Y.T., Najar, P., Dudley, P., & Thomas, E. (1995). New economies for new times. Field, C.B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Dahe, Q., Dokken, D., Ebi, K. L., .

Midgley, P.M. (Eds.). (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Use a, b, c . Page or paragraph numbers may not apply to the in-text reference for statements about the whole of a study. In her first study, Sheldon (1996) supports the theory, but her two later studies (1999a, 1999b) modify this claim. Sheldon, S. (1996). Language Limits. Sheldon, S. (1999a). Morphemic resonance: A new dimension. Sheldon, S. (1999b, Spring). In text, where it is necessary to distinguish between authors with the same surname, use the authors’ initials. Place initials after the surname when in brackets, and before the surname when in the sentence. Scollon, Scollon and Jones (2011) argue that . A recent report (Jones, R.W., 1991) indicated . D.J. Jones (1993) has refuted the findings. Scollon, R., Scollon, S.W., & Jones, R.H. 2011). Intercultural communication (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley Blackwell. Jones, D.J. (1993). Review of social needs in the North West region. Jones, R.W. (1991). Report to the CARE Centre. If no organisation, use the title in double quotation marks (articles, a chapter, web page) OR italics (periodical, book, brochure, report). The NSW Board of Studies (2006) advocates an . This content was generated by Essay Writers.

Vaccine efficiency is six times more effective . In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;). All authors are represented in the reference list. Below are examples of referencing based on variation in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses. ‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’. Avoid using works without a date as most authentic academic sources are always dated. more… (n.d.) finds that . One study (Shaw, n.d.) suggests . If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the e

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