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APA Referencing Guide

The following provides a comprehensive beginner’s guide to APA Style referencing. APA (6th ed.) requires page or paragraph numbers in in-text references for direct quotations and encourages the same for paraphrases. However, most science disciplines do not require page or paragraph numbers except for direct quotations. For specific details, check with the unit co-ordinator in your discipline? Below are examples of referencing based on variation in authors. Write the author’s surname only in-text. Addington (1994) states that . Addington, H. (1994). Cultural cringe: A study of change. Cite both surnames every time the reference occurs in text. Use ‘and’ between authors, but use an & when in brackets and in References. Holper and Torok (2008) claim . Holper, P.N., & Torok, S. (1992). Climate change: What you can do about it at work, at home, at school. Sydney, Australia: Pan Macmillan Australia. Name all authors in your first in-text reference, but use ‘et al.’ after this.


Use ‘and’ between the last two authors in your sentence preceded by a comma. However, if all of the in-text reference is in brackets, use an ‘&’ instead of ‘and’. Name all authors in the references. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma. First mention: MacKay, Clarke, Fleming, Collins, and Sue (2006) demonstrate that . Subsequent mentions: MacKay et al. 2006) also found that . MacKay, I., Clarke, C., Fleming, M., Collins, M., & Sue, J. (2006). Food the focus for our future. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ in-text. For 6-7 authors, record all the authors’ names in the References. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma before the last name. For 8 or more authors, record the first six authors followed by . Peters et al. (1995) base their study on an economic model. Peters, C., Suzuki, T., Corrigan, Y.T., Najar, P., Dudley, P., & Thomas, E. (1995). New economies for new times. Field, C.B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Dahe, Q., Dokken, D., Ebi, K. L., .


Midgley, P.M. (Eds.). (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Use a, b, c . Page or paragraph numbers may not apply to the in-text reference for statements about the whole of a study. In her first study, Sheldon (1996) supports the theory, but her two later studies (1999a, 1999b) modify this claim. Sheldon, S. (1996). Language Limits. Sheldon, S. (1999a). Morphemic resonance: A new dimension. Sheldon, S. (1999b, Spring). In text, where it is necessary to distinguish between authors with the same surname, use the authors’ initials. Place initials after the surname when in brackets, and before the surname when in the sentence. Scollon, Scollon and Jones (2011) argue that . A recent report (Jones, R.W., 1991) indicated . D.J. Jones (1993) has refuted the findings. Scollon, R., Scollon, S.W., & Jones, R.H. 2011). Intercultural communication (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley Blackwell. Jones, D.J. (1993). Review of social needs in the North West region. Jones, R.W. (1991). Report to the CARE Centre. If no organisation, use the title in double quotation marks (articles, a chapter, web page) OR italics (periodical, book, brochure, report). The NSW Board of Studies (2006) advocates an . This content was generated by Essay Writers.


Vaccine efficiency is six times more effective . In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;). All authors are represented in the reference list. Below are examples of referencing based on variation in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses. ‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’. Avoid using works without a date as most authentic academic sources are always dated. more… (n.d.) finds that . One study (Shaw, n.d.) suggests . If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the e

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